From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Basketball rules)

Jump to: navigation, search

The rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play, officating, equipment and procedures of basketball. The international rules are governed by the Technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation. Most leagues, including the National Basketball Association, govern their own rules.


The rules of basketball have undergone significant development since its invention in 1891.

Timeline of the evolution of the rules of basketball

1895: The free throw
line was officially placed 15 feet (4.6 m) from the basket. Before
this, many gyms had the line 20 feet (6.1 m) from the basket.

1896: A field goal or basket was changed from counting as three points to two points. Free throws were changed from three points to one point.

1897: Backboards were installed in most arenas.

1900: five players on the court for each team.

1901: A dribbler could not shoot the ball and could dribble it only one time, using both hands.

1909: The dribbler was permitted to shoot. In addition, the
dribble was defined as the "continuous passage of the ball," which made
the double-dribble illegal.

1911: Players were now disqualified after committing their fourth personal foul. No coaching at all was allowed during the game, even during timeouts.

1914: The bottom of the net was cut open so the ball could fall through.

1915: The college, YMCA, and AAU rules became the same for the first time.

1921: A player was allowed to re-enter the game once. Before
that, once a player left he could not return. The backboards were moved
2 feet (610 mm) in from the wall of the court. Before that they were
right on the wall and players could climb the padded wall to sink

1922: Running, or "traveling,"
with the ball was changed from a foul to a violation. In other words,
instead of the other team getting a free throw, the team in violation
simply lost the ball.

1924: The player who was fouled had to shoot his own free
throws. Prior to that, there was usually one player who shot all his
team's free throws.

1929: The charging foul by a dribbler was called for the first time.

1931: The "held ball" could be called when a closely guarded player withheld the ball from play for five seconds. The result was a jump ball. The ball was made smaller, with the maximum circumference reduced from 32 to 31 inches (813 to 787 mm).

1933: The ten-second center or midcourt line was introduced
to cut down on stalling. That meant the team with the ball had to
advance it over the center line within ten seconds of taking possession.

1934: A player could now leave and re-enter the game twice.

1935: The ball was made smaller once again. The maximum
circumference was reduced to between 29 1/2 and 30 1/4 inches (749 and
768 mm).


1936: The three-second rule was introduced. No offensive
player could remain in the free throw lane, with or without the ball,
for more than three seconds. The three-second rule was passed to reduce
the roughness in the paint between big men. It came about in some part
due to a game between the University of Kentucky and New York
University in 1935, won by NYU 23-22. This game was the first time
University of Kentucky (UK) coach Adolph Rupp took UK to New York City
to play in Madison Square Garden. He was taking one of the greatest big
men of the time, Leroy Edwards, who would garner All-American honors
that year and be named to many "All-1930's" teams. What Rupp failed to
do was to take one of his referees (a common practice at the time),
against the advice of Notre Dame coach George Keogan, who had lost to
NYU the week prior and warned Rupp of the discrepancies in officiating
between the Midwest and the East. The game was a rough one, with UK
unable to run their normal offense (which consisted of using screens)
without being called for a foul. To make matters worse, Irving Terjesen
and Irwin Klein draped themselves over Edwards, allowing him to score a
mere 6 points (the lowest output of his career). The New York Post had
this to say after the game. "The score says that NYU is the best
college basketball team in the country and that the East is still
supreme. But if Frank Lane, the ref from the Midwest, had worked the
game, it's safe to assume big LeRoy Edwards would have been given a
fantastic number of foul shots. Minor mayhem was committed on the
person of Edwards by Terjesen and Klein. Something will have to be done
or the game will become entirely too rough." The rough play of this
nationally important game helped lead the way for the 3-second rule to
become adopted.

1938: The center jump after every basket scored was eliminated. That led to more continuous play.

1940: The backboards were moved from 2 to 4 feet (0.6 to 1.2 m) from the end line to permit more movement under the basket.

1945: Defensive goaltending
was banned. Big men could no longer swat the ball away once it started
downward toward the basket. Five personal fouls now disqualified a
player. An extra foul was not permitted in overtime games. Unlimited
substitution of players was introduced.

1949: Coaches were allowed to speak to players during a timeout.

1954: The NBA adopts the shot clock.
A team must attempt a shot within 24 seconds or lose possession. The
shot clock is reset when the ball contacts the rim or backboard, or
when the defensive team gains control of the ball.

1956: FIBA adopts a 30-second shot clock, where the shot
clock is reset when a shot is attempted, or when the defensive team
gains control of the ball. The trapezoid lane, starting at 3.6m at the
free-throw line, extending to 6.0m at the end line, is adopted.

1957: The free throw lane was increased from 6 feet to 12 feet (1.8 to 3.7 m) wide.

1958: Offensive goaltending was banned. In other words, an
offensive player could not tip a team-mate's shot into the basket while
the ball was directly above the rim of the basket.

1967: The ABA begins, adopting the three-point field goal.

1971: The women's game adopts a 30-second shot clock and no backcourt rule.

1975: The NBA eliminates the center jump to start the second,
third, and fourth periods. A "quarter possession" system is adopted for
those periods only.

1976: The NBA permits the ball to be moved to the center line
in any legal time out called in the final two minutes. Following an NBA
Finals game where a player called one at the expense of a technical
foul, a rule was added to state only one in which a time out was
available would be permitted.

1980: A red light behind the backboard is mandatory in NBA games.

1981: College basketball adopts the possession arrow rule to settle jump ball situations during the game. FIBA adopts the rule in 2003.

1984: FIBA adops a three-point line, 6.25 meters from the center of the basket.

1985-1986: The NCAA adopted the 45-second shot clock.

1988: The NBA adopts three officials.

1991: The NBA mandates the shot clock unit must carry a
duplicate game time on the unit, and be placed in a uniform position
behind the backboard.

1993-1994: The NCAA shot clock time was reduced from 45 to 35 seconds.

1997: The NBA mandates a 4 foot (1.22m) arc around the basket
where a player control foul for charging cannot be called if a player
bumps into a primary defender. This prevents players from intentionally
falling down to fake a foul to cause an official to call a foul.

2000: FIBA changes the shot clock from 30 to 24 seconds, and
the number of seconds to advance the ball past half-court from 10 to 8
seconds. Also, the shot clock is reset only when the ball touches the
ring; however, a violation is called when the 24-second signal sounds,
the ball touches the ring, and does not enter the basket.

2001-2002: The NBA follows the FIBA rule, reducing the number
of seconds for a team to advance the ball past half-court from 10 to 8.
The "Illegal defense" rule was also eliminated, meaning NBA teams could
run the zone defense
(note that zone defense was and is allowed in all other forms of the
game). In order to limit the influence of dominant defensive big men,
and keep the lane open for slam dunks,
a defensive 3-second rule was introduced instead. A defensive player
may not remain in the lane for more than three seconds except while
guarding an opponent at arm's length.

2002: The NBA legalises instant replay to determine
last-second shot legality, and mandates specific angles for shot
clocks, which must have a readout viewable by players on each side. The
LED backboard light and scorer's table lights are also mandated.

2003: FIBA adopts the possession arrow and abolished the
violation when the 24-second signal sounds, the ball touches the ring,
but does not enter the basket. (The rule regarding the signal was based
on the old 30-second rule where releasing a shot reset the clock.)

2004: The WNBA moves back the three-point line to the FIBA length of 6.25 meters.

2005: FIBA permits the ball to be moved to the center line
following a time out in the final two minutes of the fourth period or
overtime. The NBA introduces their very own strict dress code when the
players aren't playing.

2006: FIBA permits instant replay, based on the NBA rule. The
WNBA adopts 4 10-minute quarters and a 24-second shot clock, with NBA
jump ball rules.


External links

Subscribe to Email Newsletter
Share this article to...